The beetroot is a root vegetable, scientifically known as Beta vulgaris.
It is also known as red beet, table beet, garden beet, or simply beet.
Packed with essential nutrients, beetroots are a great source of fiber, folate (vitamin B9), manganese, potassium, iron and vitamin C.
Beetroots and beetroot juice have been associated with numerous health benefits, including improved blood flow, lower blood pressure and increased exercise performance.
Many of these health benefits are due by their high content of inorganic nitrates.
Beetroots are delicious when eaten raw, but are more frequently cooked or pickled. Their leaves can also be cooked and enjoyed like spinach.
This is what beetroots usually look like:
There are numerous different types of beetroots, many of which are distinguished by their color; yellow, white, pink or dark purple.
Beetroots mainly consist of water (87%), carbohydrates (8%) and fiber (2-3%).
One cup (136 grams) of boiled beetroots contains less than 60 calories.
The table below contains information on all the nutrients found in beetroots (1).
|Vitamin A||2 µg||0%|
|Vitamin C||4.9 mg||5%|
|Vitamin D||0 µg||~|
|Vitamin E||0.04 mg||0%|
|Vitamin K||0.2 µg||0%|
|Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)||0.03 mg||3%|
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||0.04 mg||3%|
|Vitamin B3 (Niacin)||0.33 mg||2%|
|Vitamin B5 (Panthothenic acid)||0.16 mg||3%|
|Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)||0.07 mg||5%|
|Vitamin B12||0 µg||~|
|Aspartic acid||116 mg|
|Glutamic acid||428 mg|
|Saturated fatty acids||0.027 g|
|Monounsaturated fatty acids||0.032 g|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acids||0.06 g|
|20:5 n-3 (EPA)||0 mg|
|22:5 n-3 (DPA)||0 mg|
|22:6 n-3 (DHA)||0 mg|
Raw or cooked beetroots contain about 8-10% carbohydrates.
Simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, make up 70% of the carbs in raw beetroots, and 80% in cooked beetroots.
Beetroots are also a source of fructans, short-chain carbs which are classified as FODMAPs.
Some people cannot digest these FODMAPs, causing unpleasant digestive symptoms.
The glycemic index is a measure of how fast blood sugar levels rise after a meal.
On the other hand, the glycemic load of beetroots is only 5, which is very low.
This means that beetroots should not have a major effect on blood sugar levels, because the total carb amount in each serving is low.
Beetroots are high in fiber, providing about 2-3 grams in each 100 gram serving.
Dietary fiber is important as part of a healthy diet, and has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases (3).
Bottom line: The carbs in beetroots are mainly simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose. They are also high in fiber. Beetroots contain carbs called FODMAPs, which can cause digestive problems in some people.
Vitamins and Minerals
Beetroots are a great source of many essential vitamins and minerals.
- Folate (B9): One of the B-vitamins, important for normal tissue growth and cell function (4). It is particularly important for pregnant women (5).
- Manganese: An essential trace element, found in high amounts in whole grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables.
- Potassium: A diet high in potassium can lead to reduced blood pressure levels, and have positive effects on cardiovascular health (6).
- Iron: An essential mineral, which has many important functions in the body. It is necessary for the transport of oxygen in red blood cells.
- Vitamin C: An antioxidant that is important for immune function and skin health (7, 8).
Bottom line: Beetroots are good sources of vitamins and minerals, such as folate, manganese, potassium, iron and vitamin C.
Other Plant Compounds
Plant compounds are natural plant substances, some of which have beneficial effects in humans.
These are the main plant compounds in beetroots:
- Betanin: Also called beetroot red, betanin is the most common pigment in beetroots, responsible for their strong red color. It is believed to have various health benefits (9).
- Inorganic nitrate: Found in generous amounts in green leafy vegetables, beetroots and beetroot juice (10, 11). In the body, it can transform into nitric oxide, which has many important functions (12).
- Vulgaxanthin: A yellow or orange pigment found in beetroots and yellow beets.
Bottom line: Beetroots are high in several beneficial plant compounds, especially betanin (beetroot red), vulgaxanthin and inorganic nitrates.
Inorganic nitrates include nitrates, nitrites and nitric oxide.
Beetroots, and beetroot juice, are exceptionally high in nitrates.
There has been some debate about these substances in the past.
Dietary nitrates, such as those coming from beetroots, can get converted into a biological messenger molecule called nitric oxide (12).
When these tiny muscle cells relax, our blood vessels dilate and blood pressure goes down (19).
Bottom line: Beetroots are exceptionally high in inorganic nitrates, which have been associated with reduced blood pressure and other health benefits.
Health Benefits of Beetroots
Beetroots and beetroot juice have many health benefits, especially for heart health and exercise performance.
Lower Blood Pressure
Hypertension is an abnormally high blood pressure, which can cause damage to blood vessels and the heart.
Elevated blood pressure is among the strongest risk factors for heart disease, stroke and premature death worldwide (20).
Bottom line: Beetroots can lower blood pressure, which may lead to reduced risk of heart disease and several other diseases.
Increased Exercise Capacity
Numerous studies suggest that nitrates can enhance physical performance, particularly during high intensity endurance exercise.
Dietary nitrates have been shown to reduce oxygen use during physical exercise by affecting the efficiency of mitochondria, the cell organs responsible for producing energy (30).
Beetroots (or beetroot juice) are often used for this purpose because of their high inorganic nitrate content.
Bottom line: Beetroot consumption can improve oxygen use, increase stamina and lead to better exercise performance.
Beetroots are usually well tolerated, except for individuals who are prone to kidney stones.
Consumption of beetroot may cause urine to become pink/red, which is harmless but often confused with blood in urine.
Oxalates also have antinutrient properties. This means that they may interfere with the absorption of micronutrients.
The levels of oxalates are much higher in the leaves of the beetroot plant than in the root (40), but the root is nevertheless considered high in oxalates.
Beetroots contain FODMAPs in the form of fructans. They are short chain carbohydrates that feed the gut bacteria.
FODMAPs can cause unpleasant digestive upset in sensitive individuals, such as those who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome.
Bottom line: Beetroots are usually well tolerated, but they contain oxalates and FODMAPs, which may cause problems in some people.
Beetroots are a good source of nutrients, fiber and many plant compounds, and their consumption has been linked to improved health.
Their health benefits include improved heart health and enhanced exercise capacity, both of which are attributed to their content of inorganic nitrates.
Beetroots taste rather sweet, and are especially delicious when mixed in salads.
They are easy to prepare, can even be eaten raw, and fit well into a balanced and healthy diet.